Green cards grant permanent resident status to individuals but even if one follows all the responsibilities that come with this status, the card must typically be renewed every 10 years.
Those who should renew are usually green card holders with a Form I-551, which is valid for a decade. After 10 years, or within six months of the 10-year period, individuals should file Form I-90, Application to Replace Permanent Resident Card either online or via mail.
Once this form is filed, applicants can check their status either at the website of the US Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) or by calling the USCIS National Customer Service Center.
Those who are abroad when their green card will expire but have not applied for a Green Card Renewal prior to their departure should contact the closest USCIS office, American port of entry or US Consulate before filing Form I-90.
Those who are not permanent residents and have conditional resident status should not follow these instructions and should instead file Form I-751, Petition to Remove the Conditions on Residence, to attempt to have their status changed.
Source: Renewing a green card